Radiography: This is the most familiar type of X-ray imaging. It is used to image broken bones, teeth, and the chest. Radiography also uses the smallest amounts of radiation. To produce a standard X-ray image, the patient or part of their body is placed in front of an X-ray detector and illuminated by short X-ray pulses. Because bones are rich in calcium, which has a high atomic number, the X-rays are absorbed and appear white on the resulting image. Any trapped gases, for instance, in the lungs, show up as dark patches because of their particularly low absorption rates.

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